The research undertaken by A. A. Chaves Pinheiro examines, in a written work, the historical development of food safety legislation in Brazil and the constitutionally important aspects of the issue. After having drawn a picture of the competent federal bodies, he examines the protection of consumer rights, above all in relation to a right to information. He then goes on to describe the regulations regarding GMOs, commenting in particular on an important ruling by Brazil’s federal Court of Appeal. He also draws attention to the criminal perspective of food adulteration and food safety in Brazil, commenting on different judicial precedents. Finally, there are some closing remarks concerning the prospects of regulating food safety within the Brazilian legal system.